What is system loss?
In the current social system, electricity is the life of the economy of any country. To improve the lifestyle of people and to increase the happiness, wealth and comfort of people, electricity energy has a very important role. In the developed countries, the scale of the use of electricity of each individual is considered as a progressive measure. Therefore, it will not be very much if the electrical energy is considered as a major purveyor of financial solvency of a country or nation. However, any country, a major side between irregularity and fault in total planning and management of electricity is the system loss of electricity. This system loss of electricity is the issue of highly discussed and criticized in the present world.
The effective power of any system can not be fully used. The system loss occurs for conducting power, the wastage of tools with personal usage in industry etc., from the source of production to usage point.
% system loss = (Total generating power-Total used energy )/(Total generating power)
System loss is expressed of percentage
We think Total generating power = 100MW and Total used energy = 80MW
Then total system loss= (100-80)/100*100
From the beginning of every country, the level of this loss always remains almost above 10% to 40% in the case of electricity. This system loss of electricity is at such a level of concern that the government also falls in frustration about this. The terribleness of the system loss reaches in such a dangerous level that, to control it the government takes different types of multidimensional decision. After these, much deterioration occurs instead of improvement. For an example of Bangladesh, it can be said that, in PDB, a separate organization named Desa is created for decreasing system loss. But where the system loss of PDB was 42%, there the system loss of Desa rises by 63%.
Factors involved in electricity system
In the electricity system, the normal cause of system loss is called technical loss. The main reason for this technical loss is resistance related loss of transit line to reach electricity from the production center to load, the loss of equipment and the personal usage of the production center. In the case of Bangladesh, the system loss is divided into two, such as-
Technical Loss of electricity
Transmission loss: Usually, the power plants are established far away from a populated area. Besides, because of the availability of natural resources, the power plants are established far away from the load center. Therefore, along the electrical power transmission line brings the electricity produced in that power plant. The transmission loss of the transit line is 31I^2. Here, I= line current and R=resistance of each phase. Line current I= MW/(√3VCosθ). The transmission voltage is usually in KV and the transmission voltage is increased highly to reduce current line. Since the loss increases with the ratio of the square of I, so through the line current is very low, the amount of loss is not less.
Waste of equipment: Personal resistance related wastage of transformer, switchgear etc. are considered the wastage of equipment. Due to use for a long time, wastage increases in transformer and switchgear. It estimated that this wastage is more or less 5% in the overall electricity system of Bangladesh.
The personal usage of power plant: To operate the feed water pump of the power plant, charge the batteries, protective lightings, to operate accessory equipment’s, huge electricity is used in power plant for its own use. For the power plants of Bangladesh, this amount is taken almost 5%. If the power plants become inactive for any reason, or if the power plants remain out of production process for requiring overwhelming regularly, during that time a huge amount of electricity needs to keep active different parts of a power plant. Apart from this, in the normal active condition, much electricity wastes to energized the auxiliaries.
Non- technical loss of electricity
In the system loss of electricity, mainly the technical side is considered. Nevertheless, this nontechnical loss is taken in Bangladesh as more or less 15%. 5% is transmission loss +5% is equipment loss+ 5% is the personal use of powerhouse. In Bangladesh, the system loss of PDB is near 40%. This system loss in other countries in the world is: in Taiwan 9.5, in South Korea 13.4%, in Sri Lanka 16.8%, in West Bengal ( which is the highest in all India) 24.4%, in Pakistan 24.9%. In the case of Bangladesh, the main reason for being the system loss so high is a nontechnical loss. Nontechnical loss is called easily stealing electricity. In the discussion of system loss, the main consideration is given to the technical side. Without technical loss, which remains, is called nontechnical. The causes of nontechnical loss are-
Consumption loss: The amount of electricity consumed by the customer is known from its meter. But it is not possible to know about the proper amount of consumed electricity of the customer for bad meter, meter tampering, meter bypass and connection without meter.
Billing loss: Another main reason for the nontechnical loss is to bill less from the reading of electric meter. Customer and meter reader, both play false with organization and country.
Collection loss: Not to collect the arrears of electricity bill, forgive bill or take less bill under the pressure of the powerful person, forgiving in dishonest ways, etc. are collection loss.
This nontechnical loss occurs in business organizations, houses and industries. This nontechnical loss is mainly involved in electricity theft. With this theft, the dishonest worker of electricity organizations and electricity users are involved. Besides, in a slum area, an area far away from the city, densely area etc. places stole electricity by the hacking process.
How system loss can be minimized
The part of the nontechnical loss of electricity system can be stopped by applying strict law. It can’t imagine of nontechnical loss in the developed countries of the world. The nontechnical part of system loss of electricity can be controlled by the following ways –
- Disconnect the illegal connection of electricity or set meter there.
- Connect modern faultless meter. Meter sealing and implement strongly the principles of protecting the seal.
- Monitor the meter reading and adjust with the bill.
- Develop the billing system. Connect computer network.
- Collect arrears.
- Find out the illegal electricity connection.
- If Illegal connection is found, disconnect it and punish the members involved with it.
- Used developed technology in distributing electricity. Use insulated cable in the overhead distribution line.
- Appoint employees through HT based on area/ feeder and give them proper monitoring.
- Give strict punishment to dishonest employees.
Following steps can be considered for controlling technical loss-
- Modernize the distribution line.
- Make the transmission voltage high
- Change the old transformer, switchgear
- Build the power plant near the load center.
- Meet up local demand with a small plant. And
- Use grid only in peak hour or in the special time.
The part of nontechnical loss can be reduced if the managerial fault is reduced. Nontechnical loss or theft can be possible to stop if the proper application of the law is ensured.