Power Electronics – Components, working system, applications

Power electronics
Power Electronics concept

Power electronics consist with power, the electronics and control together. It begins in 1900 by Mercury Arc. Then the use of metal tank rectifier, grid control vacuum tube rectifier, ignitron, penetron and thyratron started. Until 1950, this device is used to control power.
In 1948, after the invention of silicon transistor by the scientists- Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley of bell telescope laboratories, the evolution of electronics took place. At present, advanced modern electronic technologies are discovering. After the invention of SCR by Bell Laboratories in 1956, the power electronics developed rapidly. In 1958, the gradual evolution of electronics in second phase is happened, and general electronics company produces thyristor commercially. It begins the new age of power electronics. At present, many devices and changing system are inventing. The evolution of microelectronics help to process many information quickly. So a lot of electrical energy can be possible to control in different value and quantity.
For many years, people were trying to control industry and electronic power of system. This gradual evolution manages to produce DC voltage of different type in word leonard system by controlling with motor drive, which makes a revolution for controlling power changing, power controlling and electrical motor drive in power electronics. In close loop system of the control medium of power electronic steady state and dynamic characteristics are described. So, Power electronics mean to send produced power, distribution, changing and application of solid state electronics for controlling. In the figure the inter relationship of electronics’ control is shown-

Power Electronics

The Major components of a power electronics system

The base of power electronic build up on the switching of power semiconductor device. With the development of power semiconductor technology, the ability of controlling power and switching speed of power device developed rapidly. The gradual evolution of microprocessor accelerates this development. At present, it is used to control the product of high energy, temperature, light, motor, propulsion system of power supplying vehicles and in controlling HVDC. It is complex to set the limit line of it. So, it can be said, at present, the branches of power electronics are many. By the following block figure the components of power electronics are shown-

Power Electronics Components

Power electronic working system

To drawing a following block diagram of describing power electronic system.

Power Electronics Working System

Power processor is always used for input processor. At this case, line frequency is 50 or 60 Hz. It becomes single phase or three phase, phase angle and topology and power processor control depend on input voltage and current. Processed output (voltage, current, frequency and the number of phase) is applied on load. The work of power electronics has shown in the above figure. If the processor gets the output voltage source, then output will depends on the current and the characteristics of phase angle load. By comparing between reference control, processor output power and reference power, the signal is made, which flows to power processor as feedback control signal and processor controls the load by working in accordance of it. The system can be reversible by changing input and output.

The scope and application of power electronics

The microelectronics evolution has helped to change the faster processing. So, It is possible to control different quantities and meanings of abounding energy. Power electronics some uses shown below via the list-

AdvertisingAir-ConditionAircraft power suppliesAlarms
AppliancesAudio amplifiersBattery chargerBlenders
BlowersBoilersBurgar alarmsCement kiln
Chemical processingClothes dryersComputersConveyers
Cranes and hoistsDimmersDisplaysElectric blankets
Electric door openersElectric dryersElectric fansElectric vehicles
ElectromagnetsElectromagnetic electroplating Electronic ignitionElectrostatic precipitators
ElevatorsFansFlashersFood mixer
Forklift trucksFurnacesGamesGarage door openers
Gas turbine startingGenerator excitersGrindersHand power tools
Heat controlsHigh-frequency lightingHigh-voltage DC Induction heating
Laser power suppliesLatching relaysLight dimmersLight flashers
Linear induction motor controlsLocomotivesMachine ToolsMagnetic recordings
MagnetsMass transitsMercurry arc lamp ballastsMining
Model trainsMotor controlsMotor driversMovie projectors
Nuclear reactor control rodOil wall drillingOven controlsPaper mills
Particle acceleratorPeople moversPhonographsPhotocopies
Photographic suppliesPower suppliesPrinting pressPumps and compressors
RadarSolar power suppliesRange power surface unitRefrigerators
RegulatorsRF amplifiersSecurity systemsSewing machines
Solid state relaySpace power suppliesStatic circuit breakersStatic relays
Steel millsSynchronous machine startingSynthetic fiberTelevision circuits
Temperature Controls TimersTV DeflectionsUltrasonic generators
UPSVacuum cleanersVAR compensationVending machine
VHF transmittersVoltage regulatorsWashing machinesWelding

Merits and demerits of power electronics


  • High efficiency and less power loss.
  • High reliability.
  • Due to not having any rolling part, the maintenance cost is less and long lasting.
  • It responses very quickly has electro-chemical system.
  • Being small size, and less weight it needs less place for setting and installation cost is less.
  • Production cost is less.


  • In supply system and load, it has the tendency of producing hermonix.
  • It operates low power factor by operating AC to DC and AC to AC.
  • The overload power is less of power electronic controller.
  • Power regeneration is very hard.

Types of Power Semiconductor Devices

Power semiconductor device generally two types-

  1. Two Terminal device
    • PIN Diode
    • Schottky diode
  2. Three Terminal device (5 types)
    • Power MOSFET
    • JFET
    • IGBT
    • BJT
    • Thyristor
      • Minority charge carrier as device four types
        1. PIN Diode
        2. IGBT
        3. BJT
        4. Thyristor
      • Majority charge carrier as device three types
        1. Schottky Diode
        2. Power MOSFET
        3. JFET


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