What is Metal?

According to the nature of the basic elements found in the world, the basic are divided into two categories. Such as- Metal and Nonmetal. But is similar to some aspects with metal and nonmetal, some fundamentals are called metalloids. According to modern theory, the cathode attracts the atomic element of the fundamental, which releases the electron and the positive ions, or the catalyst is called the metal.

Metal refers not only iron and steel rather it refers to both iron and non-iron substance. Again, iron and steel is not the same kind of substances, this concept is not present in common people. The common people think that iron and steel both are attracted by a magnet and the size of both are indifferent- so they are the same. Actually, this idea of them is wrong. Iron and steel are two distinct substance. On the other hand, non- iron metal refers to copper, aluminum, zinc, canister, lead, nickel, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium etc. They are all basic element and iron and steel are distinct.

Today there have been many improvements in metallurgy. There have many classifications of metallurgy. although until now that have been discovered 109 natural and artificial basic materials, within him only 90 basic elements of metal and remaining 19 elements non-metal. Even a century ago, the people did not know the user of more than 8 metal. The name of these metals are- gold, copper, silver, teas, iron, zinc and lead.

Evolution of Metallurgy

It is difficult to tell about the right history when the people exactly started using metal. But since the creation of beginning, the people have been raised many questions about the mind. The people tried to solve many metal related questions in many ways. Throughout the ages, intense effort and pursuits the people have learned uses of metallic materials. The main source of human civilization is the use of metallic substances. The metallurgical role is very important in our daily life. The review of history shows that the economic development of a country depends largely on its mineral resources. The present era is not just the Iron Age, it also the non-iron metallic age.

Ancient metallic history has been divided into two stages. Such as, the first one was the Bronze Age, and the second was the Iron Age. In the primitive stage, people used metal materials for the production of foods and household needs. Later on, ore collection from mine was a brave activity in human history. The history of metallurgical activity suggests that the collection of ore from the mines started long before. Gold found previously in nature as pure gold. Gold is used much in cosmetics and decoration in ancient time as it had glitter and brightness. The collection and use of metal at an early time were completely different. At that, time people knew the use of pure metals, but the technique of melting metals was unknown to them. Different size and shape were made by beating the metal. But they had a better experience in the sector that, due to hammering the metal becomes hard and due to heat it becomes soft.

Concept and scope of Metals

The most important information in metallic history is that copper is used as a necessary metal long time before gold and silver. That is why the history of copper is the oldest history. Sumerian settlers used to collect copper from Cyprus Island, from where the Italians imported it and they gave it a new name Cobram. Egypt was in the actual copper era until 2000 B.C. At that time, the use of pure copper and tin mixed copper are noticed. Apart from Egypt, Europeans were also made Bronze by mixing a certain amount of ore of tin with copper.

After the Bronze Age, the Iron Age started. Although the use of iron was in ancient age (2500-2000B.C), some people thought that the Egyptian also knew the use of an iron at 3800 B.C. But the extensive and actual use of iron started much later (almost 1200B.C.) Despite the availability of iron ore, the iron era began lately because the melting temperature of iron is much higher (almost 1535০C). On the other hand, the melting point of copper is less (1083০C). Since the high temperature was difficult to make, the actual Iron Age started lately. With the introduction of the windpipe, the use of iron is widely spread. At first, steel could not be made. Initially, the wrought iron was prepared and arms are being made in the region of Asia Minor in 1400BC by increasing carbon dioxide in it. The use of iron is noticed in Europe at 900 BC and in China at 500BC. It is astonishing to think that how it was possible to build such a large and rustless iron pillar of Ashoka of Delhi in the Sub Continent without the need of welded or modern machinery.

The development of metallurgy was faster than before the birth of Christ. During the period of 1000-1500AD, the use of metal was especially limited in making of arms and a little amount of Agricultural machinery.

Modern Iron Age begins with the introduction of Hearth Furnace (France) in 1300 AD and Blast Furnace (Germany) in 1323 AD. After the sixth century, there was a revolutionary change in the use of metal in Europe. Due to the industrial revolution in Europe, there has been a wide spread of the metal industry. Because of the invention of Baseman converter (Britain) in 1855 AD, large production of steel had started. From 1861-64 AD, Siemens-Martin discovered an Open Hearth Furnace and introduced a revolutionary change in steel production.

Apart from weapons, later on, many other equipments were produced in abundance. In 1864 AD, Sorby gave an opportunity to know the internal structure of metal by discovering the metallurgical microscope. In 1869 AD, Mendeleev made a periodic table of metal. Gibbs showed the Metallic Phase Rule of metal, for that, the mass development of the technique of metal complexes is organized in 1876 AD. After this, because of the discovery of X-ray by Roentgen in 1895 AD and the discovery of Radium by Curie in 1898 AD, the Nondestructive test of metals has been made possible. Thus, Europe’s modern metallurgical technology spread all over the world. The development of communication and vehicular revolution (1700-1800 AD), and medical and agricultural revolution (1900-1950AD) accelerate the development of metallurgy. The modern use of metals in nuclear technology and rocket technology has reached metallurgy on the peak of science and technology.


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